The book presents current progress in clinical practice and research, particularly involving pulmonary diseases. Chapters tackle a variety of topics including a search for potential biomarkers of lung tumors, sleep disordered breathing, neurogenic lung dysfunction, community acquired and nosocomial respiratory infections developing in the chronically ill, mechanisms of hypoxia sensing, and the reasons for frequent visits to primary care facilities causing an ever increasing costs for caregivers and society. Identifying molecular markers expressed in tumors, rather than histological stratification of cancer type, forms a rapidly evolving basis of precision medicine, with the hope of a future development of targeted treatment. Creative ideas drive basic research that spurs innovations that, in turn, when translated into clinical applications, lay the foundation of breakthroughs, hopefully leading to increased longevity and better quality of life. This book is intended for healthcare professionals, particularly pulmonologists, primary care physicians, and other specialists involved in the management of patients.