Vaccination is an attractive and promising alternative to existing therapeutic treatments against cancer. The chapters in this volume will describe recent developments in the field of cancer vaccines. The focus will be on promising novel vaccination strategies for induction of antibodies and cytotoxic T cells against defined cancer targets including combination with co-stimulatory antibodies. A wide spectrum of vaccines platforms currently being evaluated in phase II and III trials will be reviewed. The importance of selection of the appropriate patient's cohort as well as endpoint assays for immune-monitoring post cancer vaccinations will be discussed.