This book presents up-to-date information on how to assess early preclinical alterations in the heart, the small and large arteries and the kidney in the general and the hypertensive population, using the most sensitive, specific and cost-effective techniques. A wide variety of techniques are discussed, with careful attention to the latest developments. For each organ, evidence is documented regarding the prevalence of organ damage. Information is provided on the potential induction of regression of organ damage by treatment, the criteria for establishing significant changes and the clinical prognostic significance of regression. The manual will be invaluable for all practitioners responsible for the clinical management of hypertensive patients, given that the assessment of early preclinical cardiovascular and renal damage permits more accurate risk stratification at baseline and facilitates evaluation of cardiovascular protection when regression of structural changes is achieved during treatment.