Although it is a young scientific discipline, sport biomechanics have taken an important place in the daily routine of sports training, medicine and rehabilitation. It allows both a better understanding of human locomotion and performance and a better design of sports training and injury prevention. In those processes, the testing of athletes is crucial, and the quality and quantity of variables analysed directly influences the efficiency of physicians’, coaches’, physiotherapists’ and other practitioners’ interventions. This book proposes an account of innovative methods, and for most of them, gives direct and practical insights into how practitioners may benefit from their use in their everyday practice. It also explains how to interpret the data measured, and the underlying neuromechanical and biomechanical factors related to sports performance. Written and edited by the same researchers who proposed and validated these methods, the aim of this book is both to present innovative methods for an efficient training and testing process (most of them being based on very simple technology and data processing methods), as well as discuss the underlying associated knowledge.