Acute organ damage and the ensuing multiple organ failure are the result of a pathophysiological process involving various cytokines. Once activated, these proteins cannot be eliminated even when the kidneys function at their maximum capacity. To counteract this mechanism, researchers in Japan have developed an innovative concept employing blood purification to remove the overwhelming cytokines.This book describes the use of hemodiafiltration to inhibit the cytokine storms which cause serious organ damage in patients with septic shock. Moreover, the technical construction of the blood purification system, which includes various machines, devices, membranes, fluids, etc., is explained in detail. Finally, leading experts discuss the concept of continuous renal replacement therapy as the standard care in critically ill patients with severe acute kidney injury.Describing the current state of acute blood purification, this publication provides new impulses and opens new avenues in the treatment of acute organ damage.