This volume sets the stage for clinical experts working with diabetic patients as well as for researchers by describing the clinical presentations of retinopathy and their anatomical and functional correlates. It reviews currently available experimental models in animals. The impact of retinal pericytes, neuroglia and, specifically, Müller cells are discussed in detail. The volume addresses a variety of current scientific discussions about mechanisms of damage such as growth factors and the VEGF/PEDF balance in the diabetic eye, the ocular renin-angiotensin system, and leukocyte interactions with the microvasculature among others. Stem and progenitor cells in the retina are discussed as potential directions for future investigation. The final chapters return to emerging clinical aspects, including current approaches to retinopathy as a predictor of cardiovascular risk and how knowledge can be translated from bench to bedside.