The responsibilities of the Pediatric Nephrologist in the Nephrologist and other involved specialists is vital to critical care setting are multifaceted. Management of optimize the outcome for each individual child. acute renal failure with and without renal replacement In this first edition of the book, we have included therapy, fluid and electrolyte abnormalities and hyper- chapters focused on general topics in pediatric nephr- tensive emergencies are only some of the major clinical ogy that are most germane to the care of the critically circumstances where the renal specialist is involved in ill child. We have tried to look at the clinical situations the care of children admitted to the Pediatric Intensive from the aspect of both the Pediatric Intensivist and Care Unit. Due to the complex and specialized care renal specialist. We hope that this book will supply the required, critical care nephrology could even be consid- medical providers with a framework to approach the ered a separate entity compared to the clinical scenar- challenges faced in practicing Pediatric Intensive Care ios treated in the outpatient setting or on the inpatient Nephrology. pediatric ward.