Researchers have used a variety of techniques over the past century to gain fun- mental insights in the field of immunology and, as technology has advanced, so too has the ability of researchers to delve deeper into the biological mechanics of immunity. The immune system is exceedingly complex and must patrol the entire body to protect us from foreign invaders. This requires the immune system to be highly mobile and adaptable - able to respond to diverse microbial challenges while maintaining the ability to distinguish self from a foreign invader. This latter feature is of great importance because the immune system is equipped with toxic mediators, and a failure in self/non-self discrimination can result in serious diseases. Fortunately, in most cases, the immune system operates within the framework of its elegant design and protects us from diverse microbial challenges without initiating disease. Because the immune system is not confined to a single tissue, a comprehensive understanding of immunity requires that research be conducted at the molecular, cellular, and systems level. Immune cells often find customized solutions to h- dling microbial insults that depend on the tissue(s) in which the pathogen is found.