Ascites is the most frequent and hepatorenal syndrome the most lethal complication in liver cirrhosis. In recent years, major progress has been made regarding effective treatment of these complications, thus reducing mortality in patients.This publication highlights and critically appraises recent achievements and novel advances, and at the same time provides the background needed to grasp novel concepts. Topics treated include complications of paracentesis, the right choice of plasma expanders, and selection of patients who will experience survival benefit from transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt. Hepatorenal syndrome, on the other hand, is responsible for a broad spectrum of manifestations caused by acute kidney injury, which until recently was considered a lethal condition. Drug treatments to improve renal function and prolong survival are therefore also discussed, including important issues for clinical outcome which are still under debate. Moreover, the role of combined kidney-liver transplantation versus conventional liver-only transplantation is addressed, as well as the use of vaptans in hyponatremia and their controversial role in the treatment of ascites.Renowned experts share their knowledge and expertise and provide an international perspective. Their contributions include up-to-date references and a bullet-point summary, making this publication most valuable for practitioners, clinicians and scientists in the field.