Anemia in the elderly has been properly defined as the silent epidemic, representing 3 million people in the United States aged 65 years and older. Incidence and prevalence of this condition increase with age. It differs in its etiology, pathogenesis and treatment from anemia in children and younger adults. Anemia is associated with reduced survival, increased risk of functional dependence and hospitalization, increased risk of congestive heart failure and stage renal disease and cognitive disorders. Approximately 70% of anemia in older individuals is reversible.