This book is based on a selection of the most original articles published in the past year on new technological advances in the diagnosis and treatment of respiratory diseases. The authors of these papers were invited to contribute to this volume with critical reviews of their recent results and a discussion of the clinical implications of these findings. Technical innovations in the treatment of respiratory diseases involve many aspects from basic physics to pathophysiology and clinical experience in pulmonary and critical care medicine. The book therefore covers a broad spectrum of topics including mechanical ventilation, ventilator modes, new pharmacological treatments during ventilation, prevention of ventilator-associated infections, technologies in anesthesiology, pulmonary rehabilitation, telemonitoring in pediatric and neonatal critical care and assistance in chronic respiratory failure. Diagnostic methods such as polysomnography and ultrasound are considered as well as cardiopulmonary resuscitation methods and new options in inhalation therapies. Furthermore, the role of the environment in respiratory health problems is analyzed, and organizational issues in disaster management and intensive care are highlighted. Intended to help clinicians understand the highly technological diagnostic and therapeutic methods available today, this book will be indispensable for anyone caring for children or adults with respiratory problems, both in the ICU and in daily practice.