This Otolaryngologic Clinics' publication's intent is to provide standard and state of the art clinician performed thyroid ultrasound and ultrasound guided FNA technique. The subject area is evolving rapidly with new technologies being incorporated. This title integrates thyroid cytology, FNA and Ultrasound Guided FNA with inclusion of diagnostic molecular testing. Clinical Thyroid Molecular Testing has ushered in a new era to the diagnosis, management and prognostication of thyroid nodules. The discussion of this highly clinically applicable subject is described in terms of diagnostic process. This is a thyroid neoplasm clinical 'game changer” for the General Otolaryngologist, Head and Neck Surgeon, General Surgeon, Endocrinologist, Pathologist, and Radiologist. This testing maximizes the number of patients who have cancer to receive the correct therapeutic surgery appropriately and minimizes the number of patients who do not need surgery (and avoid the potential complications and surgery) because they do not have cancer. Surgical management and prognostication have far reaching implications with fine needle aspiration driven molecular markers. Some topics include: Clinical evaluation of the thyroid nodule; Thyroid cytology; Clinician performed thyroid ultrasound; Clinician performed thyroid ultrasound guided FNA; Thyroid cancer molecular laterations - what the surgeon should know; Thyroid cancer multi-gene expression - what the surgeon needs to know; Incorporating molecular testing into your thyroid practice - five experts discuss; and others.