Thyroid tumors are the most common endocrine neoplasms and their incidence is rising worldwide. In recent years many advances in understanding of the molecular abnormalities of thyroid tumors have been made that pave the road for personalized targeted therapies. As a volume in the Advances in Surgical Pathology series, this book will feature chapters on these current and impending changes. It will provide a rapid summary for residents and fellows to stay up-to-date while in their training and studying for their boards. It will also be applicable to practicing pathologists want to stay current in the latest testing and diagnostics as well as for those who are required to pass continuing maintenance of certification tests and credentialing. Among the advances highlighted include a concise review of current diagnostics, including molecular testing with radiographic correlation and updated Thyroid Bethesda Classification for thyroid cytopathology terminology.