This book aims to equip the reader to make optimal decisions on the use of mechanical ventilatory support in critically ill cancer patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) and to implement the different strategies effectively. Detailed information is provided on the rationale for invasive and non-invasive ventilation, the different modes of ventilation, indications and contraindications, prognostic factors, and outcomes. The role of postoperative mechanical ventilation following various forms of surgery is extensively addressed, and key aspects of withdrawal from ventilatory support are discussed. Attention is also devoted to mechanical ventilation in the palliative care context. The concluding part of the book focuses on healthcare resource utilization and organizational support in cancer critical care. ARF is the most common reason for hospital and intensive care admission among oncological patients, and there is growing evidence that outcome following mechanical ventilation is improving. Readers will find this book to be an invaluable aid when selecting and executing a strategy for management of ARF in individual cancer patients.