Ultrasound imaging techniques are an indispensable complement to physical examination, which is often frustrating, if not useless, for diagnosing kidney problems. The application of ultrasound techniques in clinical routine helps clinicians to rule out, at first glance, some serious pathological conditions and to concentrate on the accurate diagnosis of the patient. Moreover, sonography can extend the spectrum of diagnostic criteria in acute kidney diseases. It makes it possible to determine morphological parameters without potentially toxic contrast media while exploring functional aspects with contrast enhanced or Doppler ultrasound techniques. This publication meets a growing demand for current information among physicians and nurses in the field. With a focus on the daily practice of diagnosing kidney disease, it is an important resource for both beginner and advanced users of ultrasound imaging techniques.