This SpringerBrief attempts to provide a complete update on endometriosis. From the underlying mechanisms, predisposing factors, role of environmental pollutants, treatment options, impact on quality of life, biomarkers, to emerging treatment modalities in order to help clinicians to pursue a patient-centered approach in managing the disease. This book provides clinicians with a better insight into early diagnosis and management of endometriosis. It explores the possible identification of proteins in different types of endometriosis diseases and at different stages of the progression. This may aid in the discovery of potential biomarkers for non-invasive diagnosis of these diseases. The ability to identify a protein, common between women of different races, ages and in different regions of the world will hopefully contribute to improving women’s health worldwide.