This book provides a comprehensive overview of the biological basis of renal tumors in childhood and the clinical approaches to their treatment. Recent advances in our understanding of the molecular genetics of Wilms and other renal tumors are placed in their clinical context, including the differing treatment approaches of immediate surgery or pre-operative chemotherapy. The challenges in applying this knowledge to improve risk stratification and to incorporate biologically targeted agents into front-line therapy are discussed. In addition, the current state of thinking of the two major clinical trial groups in these diseases is presented. All of the authors are experts from Europe and North America, and the book has been written specifically as an easy reference for the practising clinician and the research scientist. It lays the basis for understanding the future direction of clinical and translational research to improve outcomes in patients with childhood renal tumors and will prove indispensable for those treating or researching into these diseases.