Mechanical ventilation has become a cornerstone in the treatment of critically ill patients in the past decades. However, weaning from mechanical ventilation is a difficult task which may result in complications. In intensive care units, non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) is increasingly used as a safe alternative in order to avoid reintubation in postextubation respiratory failure and decannulation in tracheotomized patients. This book establishes the indications for the use of NIV in the context of weaning from invasive mechanical ventilation. It provides a comprehensive overview of key topics relevant for correct practical application, including NIV and weaning principles, important aspects of patient care before and after weaning, and pediatric and neonatology weaning. Finally, the book summarizes international guidelines and new perspectives of NIV during weaning. With contributions by international experts in the field on non-invasive mechanical ventilation, the book will serve as a valuable guide for critical care physicians, respiratory physiotherapists, and pulmonologists.