This book gives an updated and detailed overview of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for rectal cancer. Rectal cancer has become an increasing and serious disease in western countries, mainly linked to lifestyle and bad alimentation habits. This specific cancer is not only a threat to the lifespan of patients, but also has a heavy impact on quality of life, due to its implications in the fecal, urinary and sexual functions. Recent guidelines of prevention and early diagnosis, as well as current and future diagnostic and staging work-up, are here presented in a clear and convincing way, linking each topic to the therapeutic options arising from the staging and including a chapter on the molecular evaluation of the tumor. To complete the multifaceted approach to this particular pathology, a large part is devoted to the in-hospital care of rectal cancer patients, beginning from the fast-track procedures and the enhanced recovery systems, up to the in-depth description of the available of surgical techniques, including salvage situations, accidents, complications, and their treatment. A final chapter will be dedicated to the follow-up policy and its advantages.