Sports medicine and sports science are relatively new and rapidly developing fields of knowledge. During the past 2 decades, a significant body of scientific knowledge has been published in these areas. However, there is a demand for practical ref- ences which address sports medicine and science in the context of different sports. This demand is higher in some sports including combat sports, which are highly physically and mentally demanding, and cause challenging issues such as risk of blood-borne infections, weight reduction, head injuries, stress management, and safety for women and children. This book has been developed to meet the needs of the practitioners who work with combat sports athletes in order to improve their health and performance. Combat sports include four Olympic sports (boxing, wrestling, judo, and t- kwondo) and other popular sports such as karate, kick boxing, and Wushu. These sports are popular in most countries of the world, both at competitive and rec- ational levels. Combat sports are practiced by people of different ages for a variety of reasons such as to gain fitness and health benefits and to learn self-defense.