The term 'minimally invasive spinal surgery' was coined in early 1990 following pub- cation of the first edition of this text entitled Arthroscopic Microdiscectomy: Minimal Intervention in Spinal Surgery, and subsequent establishment of the International Society for Minimal Intervention in Spinal Surgery (ISMISS) under the auspices of the International Society of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology (SICOT) in April l990. The orthopedic and neurological surgeons who participated in lectures and hands-on wo- shops both in Philadelphia and abroad have witnessed the evolution of minimally invasive spinal surgery from blind nucleotomy to endoscopic fragmentectomy, decompression of l- eral recess stenosis, foraminoplasty, and spinal stabilization. In Arthroscopic and Endoscopic Spinal Surgery: Text and Atlas, Second Edition, experts describe and illustrate various techniques and approaches that are currently used in this field. In addition, the ongoing research for the betterment of spine care via minimally invasive approaches is briefly reviewed. I would like to express my sincere appreciation to so many of my colleagues who s- ported my efforts in the field of minimally invasive spinal surgery throughout the years. Many of them participated in our teaching symposiums and have provided valuable cont- butions to this text.